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Keep your Mac from sleeping in Mountain Lion System 10.8
Since Mountain Lion was released, I find that my Macs go to sleep when I don't want them to. I had my Energy Saver preferences set to 15 minutes, but I've noticed that when something is active, such as a download, they got to sleep after 15 minutes, rather than continue with the download. This is not only incorrect behavior, but it's very annoying. What's worse, when I changed the setting to Never, they would still go to sleep during long downloads.

The Ask Different blog pointed out that there is a new command in Mountain Lion called caffeinate. This keeps the system awake, or, as the man page says, "prevent the system from sleeping on behalf of a utility."

Run it as follows in Terminal:
caffeinate -u -t 3600
3600 in the above command is the number of seconds to keep the system awake. What's interesting is that you can effectively set your Mac to shut down at a specific time (that is, the built-in sleep mechanism will start counting when that time runs out). You can also run the command alone to keep your Mac awake until you stop it by pressing Control-C.
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Safari 6: two-finger pinch to view and select Tabs. System 10.8
In Safari 6, and Mountain Lion, you can use a two-finger pinch to view and switch tabs.

Once you pinch in Safari (assuming multiple tabs are opened) you will get a view similar to that of Safari on iOS, and you can navigate among tabs using two-finger swipes to the right and left, arrow keys or a mouse or trackpad. This is an interesting way to preview all open tabs without having to load them fully.

You can either press Return, click the mouse or tap to select the frontmost tab, or pinch out to stay where you are. You can also close any tabs by clicking the close button in their headers or pressing Command-W while in this view.

[kirkmc adds: Interesting idea. I find all these gestures a bit hard to remember, but this one may actually become instinctive over time. Personally, I'll stick with Command-Shift-arrow key to cycle through tabs… Following the comments below, I've changed the category to 10.8. I had expected this to work across the board in Safari 6.]
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Skip Gatekeeper once System 10.8
By default Gatekeeper allows you to run apps from the Mac App Store and from verified developers. You can change this setting in the Security preference pane. If you use this setting, or the Mac App Store only setting, you can still run unsigned apps. Just Control- or right-click on an app and choose Open. Gatekeeper will display a dialog asking if you're sure you want to open the application.

[kirkmc adds: There is an extensive article on Macworld about Gatekeeper, but I felt this would be good to mention as a hint. I think most readers of this site won't use the restrictive settings, but you may work with others who do, or administer computers, and may want to launch unapproved apps on those computers from time to time.]
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Disable smooth scrolling in Mountain Lion System 10.8
Thanks to John Siracusa for this sanity saving tip! To turn off smooth scrolling, run the following command in Terminal:

defaults write -g NSScrollAnimationEnabled -bool NO
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Collect RSS feed URLs from Mail System 10.8
Mountain Lion removes RSS functionality from both Mail and Safari. To facilitate the transfer of your feeds to another RSS reader, you can collect the feed URLs by running the following script in the ~/Library/Mail/V2/RSS directory of your latest backup.
  1. Go to: ~/Library/Mail/V2/RSS/ in your latest backup.
  2. Run the following in Terminal:
    find . -name "Info.plist" -exec grep -A 1 Feed {} \; | grep string | sed 's/^[^>]*>//' | sed 's/<[^>]*>$//'
[kirkmc adds: I never used RSS with Mail or Safari so I don't see anything there.]
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Encrypt almost any disk in Mountain Lion System 10.8
With Mountain Lion, you can now use the OS to encrypt disks other than the startup volume, assuming they are in GUID format. This includes USB flash drives and external Firewire/USB/ThunderBolt drives.

In the Finder, open a new window. Find your mounted (GUID) drive in the sidebar.

Control-click on the drive in the sidebar, then choose "Encrypt <drive name>." You are now prompted for your password and a hint (which is required). You will get no feedback, so wait for a few minutes; the time depends on the size of the drive.

The drive should unmount and mount again. Once this happens, your drive is encrypted.

If you choose your startup volume, this will enable FileVault II. Other drives do not enable FileVault II.

[kirkmc adds: I, for one, think this is pretty nifty. I know a lot of people who have two drives in an older laptop, where they replaced the optical drive with an SSD. Being able to encrypt the non-boot drive is quite practical, and being able to encrypt a portable drive even better.

It should be noted that there's no feedback during the encryption process. The only way you know something is happening is if the drive has an LED that shows read/write activity. And the process can take a long time; even for a 1 GB flash drive, where I tested it, it took several minutes.

Another thing to note is that an encrypted drive doesn't show up in Disk Utility. So if you need to erase that drive, you have to right-click on the drive's name and choose "Decrypt <drive name>."]
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Quick Look in Mountain Lion supports pinch to zoom in or out System 10.8
I deal with a lot of PDF documents and until now was using Lion. I used to Quick Look PDFs all the time, and pinching used to make it full screen. But even in full screen, because most document have a portrait orientation, many times the text wasn't readable enough. Now, pinching in Quick Look, both normally and when full screened, zooms in or out like in Preview. I've tested this only with PDFs. I tried with a JPG, and pinching did nothing to it.

[kirkmc adds: Yes, I get this to work with PDFs, but not with other graphic formats. ]
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Get Web Sharing back in Mountain Lion System 10.8
If you haven't noticed, Web Sharing has been removed from Mountain Lion. According to Apple, if you need Web Sharing, you should probably look at OS X Server.

Nevertheless, many people want to use Web Sharing, notably to run a local server to test win site design. I've come across two tutorials. One by Brett Terpstra and another by Neil Gee. Finally, Tyler Hall has created a Web Sharing preference pane

Personally, I don't need Web Sharing generally, but I have used it in the past to test web applications. So if you need it, check out the above links.
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Email link to web page from Safari in Mountain Lion System 10.8
The email a link command in Safari seems to have disappeared, but it's actually just hidden behind a keyboard shortcut. Command-Shift-I opens a new email with a link to the current page in Safari.
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Select an AirPlay device to stream audio from the menu bar System 10.8
To play your Mac's audio over an AirPlay device (like an Apple TV or AirPort Express), the standard way is to open System Preferences, then click on the Sound pane, then the Output tab, then select the device.

There's a much quicker way, however. If you have the Volume menu visible in the menubar, clicking on this icon displays a simple volume slider. But if you hold the Option key when you click on the icon, you can select audio inputs and outputs directly, including nearby devices compatible with AirPlay.

[kirkmc adds: This isn't new, at least the part about using an Option-click to choose input and output devices. It's worth pointing it out again, however, because you can now choose AirPlay devices as well from this menu. As noted in the comments below, it seems that this menu only displays the last selected AirPlay device.]
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