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10.9: Run sysdiagnose with keyboard shortcut System 10.9
The command-line utility sysdiagnose can be triggered by pressing Cmd+Opt+Ctrl+Shift+Period, and it may take a few minutes to complete. When ready, the output will automatically be revealed in a Finder window (or it can be manually retrieved from /var/tmp).

What sysdiagnose Collects:
  • A spindump of the system
  • Several seconds of fs_usage ouput
  • Several seconds of top output
  • Data about kernel zones
  • Status of loaded kernel extensions
  • Resident memory usage of user processes
  • All system logs, kernel logs, opendirectory log, windowserver log, and log of power management events
  • A System Profiler report
  • All spin and crash reports
  • Disk usage information
  • I/O Kit registry information
  • Network status
  • If a specific process is supplied as an argument: list of malloc-allocated buffers in the process's heap is collected
  • If a specific process is supplied as an argument: data about unreferenced malloc buffers in the process's memory is collected
  • If a specific process is supplied as an argument: data about the virtual memory regions allocated in the process
The man page for sysdiagnose can be found here.

[crarko adds: This seems to be primarily intended for software developers as a debugging aid, but I can see it useful for system troubleshooting at a low level as well. I tried it and found the output (text) file in /var/tmp, as mentioned above.]
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10.9: Disable power button sleep System 10.9
Here is a way to disable sleeping when pressing the power button on 10.9.2. In Terminal, type in the following command and then press Enter.

defaults write com.apple.loginwindow PowerButtonSleepsSystem -bool no

This causes the 'Are you sure you want to shut down your computer now?' dialog to come up much quicker too.

[crarko adds: I tested this, and it works as described. I had to log out and log back in; I'm not sure if that's necessary.]
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10.9: Smart folders on the Dock System 10.9
In OS X 10.9 Mavericks a smart folder (or a saved search) dragged to the Dock behaves like a folder (smart folders by default are saved under ~/Library/Saved Searches). Right click gives sorting, display and viewing options similar to ordinary folders dragged to the Dock. A drawer icon is shown if Display as Folder option is selected. In grid view Quick Look works, too.

I did not check if it works under 10.8 or 10.7. I have to mention that there was already a hint about how to add 'recent things' stack to the Dock.

[crarko adds: I tested this, and it works as described.]
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10.9: Updating SSH private keys System 10.9
Here is a method for updating SSH private keys to work with OS X 10.9 Mavericks, using Terminal commands.
cd /Users/nameofuser/.ssh
cp id_rsa{,.bak}
chmod +w id_rsa id_rsa.pub
openssl rsa -in id_rsa -out id_rsa         # decrypt in place
openssl rsa -in id_rsa -aes256 -out id_rsa # encrypt in place
ssh-keygen -y -f id_rsa > id_rsa.pub       # regen public key
chmod 400 id_rsa id_rsa.pub
The source of this hint.

[crarko adds: I haven't tested this one. At least not yet. The solution seems to come from a question asked on StackExchange.]
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10.9: iOS Keyboard Shortcuts in OS X Mavericks System 10.9
I came across this by pure accident but did you know that all of your iOS Keyboard Shortcuts that you create are then stored to iCloud Keychain and can be used in OS X 10.9?

I was in iMessage when I accidentally typed "eag" which is a shortcut I have created to easily insert my work email in iOS. Well I typed that and pressed space and the text autofilled into the message. So then I went ahead and typed other shortcuts I actively use in iOS and sure enough, they all auto-complete very nicely. After noticing this, I went to System Preferences » Keyboard » Text and found an entire Menu that you can control this (and I assume will also sync to iCloud Keychain).

[crarko adds: I'm pretty sure I've seen this mentioned before, but in case it is a new and useful fact to somebody here it is.]
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Update bluetooth service in Mavericks System 10.9
I recently started having severely shortened battery life on my Magic Trackpad. It turns out the fix is pretty easy.

When researching the problem, I found the standard fix reported over the last few years was to "update service" in OS X's bluetooth preferences. Looking for that option in Mavericks proved fruitless. Finally, out of desperation, I selected the option to disconnect the trackpad, then re-associated it. Immediately, the day-old batteries showed a 100% charge instead of the prior 10% and I've had no problems since.
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10.9: Switch the SMB stack to use SMB1 as default System 10.9
The new SMB2 stack deliverd with OS X 10.9 (Mavericks) often fails to connect to NAS devices or behaves strangely on server volumes, such as an inability to change file/folder names.

Some possible workarounds are:

First try using cifs:// instead of smb:// to connect to the server volumes.

If that doesn't help, then there is a way to change all connections that use SMB1 by entering this command in Terminal:
echo "[default]" >> ~/Library/Preferences/nsmb.conf; echo "smb_neg=smb1_only" >> ~/Library/Preferences/nsmb.conf
To restore the default SMB2 you simply need to delete the newly created configuration file (nsmb.conf) with the command:
rm ~/Library/Preferences/nsmb.conf
Both workarounds force OS X to use SMB1 as a network protocol instead of the default SMB2 used by OS X 10.9 (Mavericks). While the first is an ad hoc solution the second is a persistent but reversible configuration change (for this user account). SMB1 is slower than SMB2 but stable.

[crarko adds: I don't have a way to test this at the moment, but I do recall reading that people have experienced some of these issues. If someone has a NAS device to test this with (especially if there have been problems) please let us know if either of these fixes helped.]
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See open URLs per Safari Web Content instance in Activity Monitor System 10.9
I believe this is new to Mavericks: Here's an easy way to identify the windows in Safari that are currently using resources.

Open Activity Monitor, and then hover over a Safari Web Content item in the window. That will display the open URL(s) belonging to that instance. This makes it easy to identify the window in Safari that is using up your CPU.

Lex adds: This works as described, and is great.
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Mavericks - Finally a service to open a terminal from a specific folder System 10.9
Right mouse click and choose Services > New Terminal at Folder

I've tried different apps to be able to open a Terminal shell from a specific folder. Finally in Mavericks you can add a Service to do that. In System Preferences choose Keyboard and then Shortcuts. From the left side nav, choose Services. Then from the main area under Files and Folders, choose New Terminal at Folder and/or New Terminal Tab at Folder. Now you can right mouse click or control click on a folder and choose Services > New Terminal at Folder.
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Drag Finder Window's Proxy Icon to add tab System 10.9
A new tab can be added to a Finder window that already has tabs by dragging a folder's proxy icon to the plus sign that appears in the tabbed window.

You probably know you can drag the proxy icon of a Mavericks Finder window to another Finder window's tab to move or copy it to the tab's folder. You can add the folder as a tab to a Finder window that already has tabs if you drag its proxy icon to the plus (+) icon next to the right-most tab of the tabbed window.
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